Weight Loss Surgery | Types, Pros and Drawbacks

The option of surgery to get rid of excess weight needs to be thought about well first, then consult the competent doctor to clarify its pros and cons and the extent to which it can be applied, in addition to identifying the changes that will occur in a person's life after making them, noting that It's not the best way to lose weight because of its side effects and health risks. In this article.


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We will mention the conditions for weight loss, as well as the necessary surgeries, with the pros and cons of each.

Conditions for Weight Loss Surgery

- The BMI should be 40 or more, meaning that men have 45 kilograms of excess weight and 36 kilograms for women.
- Serious obesity-related health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, inability to breathe during sleep, and high cholesterol.
- All other means of weight loss have failed, although attempts continue. A
- Fully aware of the side effects and health risks of weight-loss surgeries.


Types of Weight Loss Surgery

We will mention the most important types of Weight Loss Surgery:

Gastric banding or gastric banding

Using an endoscope, the doctor places a silicone ring about two inches around the stomach opening to restrict the size of the stomach from the top, with an opening remaining below towards the rest of the stomach and digestive tract. The size of this silicone ring can be adjusted by injecting saltwater through an outlet located under the skin, and the principle of this process depends on how much food a person can eat.

Pros: -It requires a relatively short time in the operating room and requires a short stay in the hospital.
- Few complications when compared to other surgeries.
- The silicone ring can be removed if needed, so the stomach will return to the way it was.


Drawbacks: - Vomiting when eating quickly, or if the opening towards the stomach and digestive system are too narrow.
- The possibility of slipping the silicone ring, which forces the patient to undergo another operation


Gastric sleeves

It is a process in which the shape of the stomach is transformed from the sinus form to a narrow tube by eliminating the curved side of the stomach, thereby reducing the size of the stomach by 70-80%, so that it can only be accommodated for a little food, and is suitable for those who are severely obese.

Pros: - Less dangerous than gastric bypass, which we'll mention later.
- The vertical sinus in the stomach is not prone to stretching, which makes it inactive in the digestion and absorption of food by the intestines.


Drawbacks: - a final and irreversible process.

Gastric bypass

It is in three types, in which the size of the stomach is reduced to more than 90%, where the doctor converts the upper part of the stomach to a small pocket the size of an egg, then cut the small intestine and connect one of its limbs to the stomach pocket, and then connect the other end to the small intestine.

The principle of this process depends on the food exceeding most parts of the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, which causes the body to absorb fewer calories, as well as the feeling of fullness and fullness once you eat very small amounts of food.


Pros: - The most effective process is in eliminating obesity-related problems.
- Lose excess weight in a short time.


Drawbacks: - lack of vitamins and minerals in the body, due to poor absorption.
- Drop-in syndrome, where food passes rapidly from the stomach to the intestines without being well digested, causing poor digestion, nausea, and diarrhea.


Tips after gastric bariatric surgery

Many tips help you stay on track after surgery, including:

- Use a blender to mash food.
- Learn how to understand the difference between feeling hungry and appetite that may just be the result of a psychological condition.
- Do not overeat.
- Chew and eat slowly.
- Avoid trans fats, fried, and fast food. Avoid dehydration by drinking water.
- Separating a certain period between eating consumption and drinking.
- Add sports to your lifestyle and start walking.


Long term complications of a gastric bariatric surgery

gastric band can cause long-term complications, most notably:

- Failure to lose weight, which is a serious problem as surgery is not effective in weight loss and may be due to the patient ignoring instructions, or because of the large size of the pocket, or other health problems that prevent weight loss.

- Frequent digestive difficulties or stomach upsets.

- Gastroesophageal reflux disease, heartburn, as well as other symptoms of reflux such as bloating, nausea, and feeling full, it should be noted that stomach disorders are common after surgery and often require treatment.

- Stomach obstruction, which may lead to difficulty or inability to digest food.

- Stomach ulcers, known as peptic ulcers that are more common after the operation, are usually diagnosed through an upper endoscopy after the patient has symptoms such as bleeding, or stomach pain.

- Nausea, which is one of the most common problems after gastric bandithic surgery, may improve in some patients after recovery from surgery, but may last for months or even for a long time.


- The need to consume supplements due to a significant reduction in eating leads to inadequate nutrition.

- Sagging skin, which is common in many types of bariatric surgery, due to stretching of the skin during obesity.


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Reference

- Mary L. Gavin, "What Is Weight Loss Surgery?"، kidshealth.
- "Stomach Surgery", ariahealth.
- Jennifer Robinson (13-12-2017), "What Is Gastric Sleeve Weight Loss Surgery?"، webmd.
- "What Is Gastric Sleeve Weight Loss Surgery?", www.webmd.com.

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